The Verbs of Motion - Глаголы движения
In Russian it is possible to single out a special group of verbs, the so-called verbs of motion.
There are 14 pairs of them, each pair denoting one method of motion. All these verbs are imperfective.
(movement in a certain direction)
or movement in various directions
|The agent moves|
|идти (to go)||ходить|
|ехать (to go)||ездить|
|бежать (to run)||бегать|
|плыть (to swim, to sail)||плавать|
|лететь (to fly)||летать|
|ползти (to crawl)||ползать|
|лезть (to climb)||лазить|
(to roam, to wander)
|The agent moves with the object|
(to carry (in one's hands)
|вести (to lead)||водить|
|везти (to carry (in a vehicle)||возить||
|тащить (to drag, to carry)||таскать|
(to roll, to wheel, to bowl)
|гнать (to drive)||гонять|
The verbs of unidirectional movement are used:
1) If at the moment of speech the motion is observed to go on in one direction only:
Я иду в институт.
I go to the college.
2) Talking of habitual movements in one direction:
Осенью перелётные птицы летят на юг.
In autumn migratory birds fly to the south.
3) In the case of a concrete instruction, command or advice to make a move in a certain direction:
The verbs of non-directed or variously directed movement are used:
1) If at the moment of speech the motion is observed to go on in different directions:
Он ходит по комнате.
He is walking about the room.
2) Speaking about somebody's habitual movements in different directions:
Каждое лето мы ездим на юг.
Every summer we go to the south.
3) Speaking about a movement in two different direction (there and back). The verb ходил is synonymous with the verb был:
Где ты был? - Ходил в институт.
Where were you? - I went to the college. (I go there and then come back)
4) Speaking of ability, skill, of some usual means of locomotion:
Он хорошо плавает. - He swims well.
Змеи ползают. - Snakes crawl.